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What are the pharmacological effects of ginkgo biloba leaf extract?

Views: 352     Author: Acetar Bio-Tech Inc.     Publish Time: 2016-12-25      Origin: Site

Ginkgo Biloba Leaf Extract Basics / Overview / Introduction

Ginko Biloba Extract is made from the leaves of Ginkgo biloba L, by using appropriate solvents to extract the active ingredients. Pharmacological research results showed that Ginko Biloba Extract contained more than 100 chemical components including flavonoids, terpenoids, organic acids, polyisopentenols, steroidal compounds, amino acids and trace elements.

The main active components in Ginko Biloba Extract are Flavone glycosides and Terpene lactones. Studies have shown that ginkgo flavone has anti-inflammatory,  antioxidant, vascular dilation, inhibition of platelet aggregation  and other pharmacological effects. Ginkgolide has a protective effect on brain tissue after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion.Various preparations made from Ginko Biloba Extract are widely used in medicine, health care products, food additives, functional drinks, cosmetics and other fields.

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The Main Active Ingredients in Ginkgo Biloba Standardized Extract Include:

(1) Flavonoid: including isorhamnetin, kaonetin, quercetin, trihydroxyl flavone, five hydroxyl flavone, hydroxyl flavone, etc., accounted for about 24% in the extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves;

(2) Terpene lactones: including difololides and ginkgolides, the proportion of ginkgo biloba leaf extract is about 6%;

(3) Organic acids: it includes 6-hydroxyquinolinic acid, protocatechuic acid, vanillic acid and shikimic acid, among which 6-hydroxyquinolinic acid is an excitatory amino acid antagonist, which can relieve nerve cell injury, cerebral ischemia and other symptoms, accounting for about 5%-10% in the extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves.

In addition, the extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves also contains polysaccharides, polypentenols ester, alkyl phenolic acid compounds and other nutrients.

Pharmacological Effects of Ginkgo Biloba Leaf Extract:

(1) Eliminate oxygen free radicals, antioxidant

Hypoxic aging, atherosclerosis, neurodegenerative diseases and even tumors are closely related to the toxicity of oxygen free radicals. The active components of Ginko Biloba Extract are mainly flavonoids and a variety of ginkgolides. Flavonoids are one of the best natural antioxidants, which can remove free radicals, reduce the generation and deposition of lipid peroxidation products, improve the activity of superoxide dismutase, protect cell membranes, and regulate organ and tissue functions.

                                                                                                                                                                                                   Source:. Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine,2009,37(6):29 -32

(2) Improve hemorheology and anti-platelet aggregation

Ginkgo biloba extract can effectively reduce blood viscosity, antagonize platelet activating factors, inhibit platelet aggregation and thrombosis, protect vascular endothelial cells, improve microcirculation, and dilate vascular smooth muscle, thus reducing pulmonary hypertension, improving right heart function, promoting cardiopulmonary function recovery, reduce various complications and improve the prognosis of patients.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Source: Journal of Clinical Pulmonary Science,2009,14(5):660.

Ginkgo biloba extract can increase the concentration of Ca2 + in vascular endothelial cells, activate the synthesis and release of NO, cause vasodilation, increase cardiovascular flow, and improve myocardial ischemia and hypoxia.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Source:Histol Histopathol,2008,23(7):807 -817.

Studies have shown that the use of Ginkgo biloba extract to treat patients with angina pectoris from coronary heart disease significantly improved blood high shear viscosity, blood low shear viscosity, platelet adhesion rate and RBC volume.

                                                                                                                                                                                                         Source: Pharmacology and Clinic of traditional Chinese Medicine,2015,31(1):230 -232.

In addition, hemorheological indexes such as plasma viscosity, fibrinogen, plasma specific viscosity, whole blood reductive specific viscosity and blood cell volume were significantly improved after Ginkgo biloba extract treatment for cerebral infarction patients.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Source: Journal of Clinical and Pathological Studies,2014,34(5):584 -588.

(3) Protect the nervous system

Studies have shown that Ginkgo biloba extract can significantly improve the content of acetylcholine in the hippocampus of Alzheimer's disease mice, accelerate nerve impulse conduction, facilitate synaptic transmission, and significantly improve the learning and memory dysfunction of dementia mice.

Professor Guo Jianmin et al. found that Ginkgo biloba extract can reduce the function and even death of substantia nigra cells in Parkinson's disease rats, and reduce the apoptosis rate of damaged cells. In addition, the ingredients in Ginkgo biloba extract also have the function of anti-glutamate neurotoxicity, which can reduce the increase in the proportion of excitatory amino acids caused by the increase of neuronal excitability during cerebral ischemia, thus protecting the brain tissue after acute cerebral infarction.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Source: Chinese Journal of Experimental Formulae,2012,18(1):141 -144.

(4) Reduce inflammation and improve airway remodeling

When discussing the intervention effect of Ginkgo biloba extract on airway and pulmonary vascular remodeling in rats with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), Professor Tan Yuping et al. found that Ginkgo biloba extract could not only reduce alveolar fusion, inhibit bronchial smooth muscle hyperplasia and airway remodeling, but also reduce the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells and inhibit pulmonary vascular remodeling.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Source: Chinese Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care,2008,7(4):274 -276.

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